The Human Pancreatic Alpha Cell in Health and Disease: A Clinician’s Perspective
by - Dr Vinod K. Abichandani
When Banting and Best injected extracts from pancreatic tissue intravenously or subcutaneously into diabetic dogs and humans, a marked reduction in blood sugar was noticed (reflecting the hypoglycaemic action of insulin). However, this was often preceded by a small transient elevation of blood sugar, which was initially thought to be caused by epinephrine. A few years later, this phenomenon was ascribed to a glucose-mobilizing substance, later named ‘glucagon. It took almost three further decades before the pancreatic α-cells were identified as being the source of glucagon, and hypoglycaemia documented as a trigger for the release of this hormone.
Use of Antidiabetic / Hypoglycaemic Agents in Cardiovascular Disease
by -Dr. Anand Shankar and Dr. Pankaj Hans
Cardiovascular (CV) complications are the most important cause of morbidity and mortality in diabetes. Diabetics are three times more prone to CV events, four times for heart failure and two times higher risk for death as compared to non-diabetics. The effect of improved glycaemic control on CV complication has been well established through clinical trials and meta-analyses. However, several studies have suggested that some antidiabetic drugs increase CV risk, despite being effective at lowering blood glucose in type 2 diabetes. When choosing the appropriate treatment strategy for patients with type 2 diabetes with CV risk, not only the glucose in type 2 diabetes. When choosing the appropriate treatment strategy for patients with type 2 diabetes with CV risk not only for glucose lowering effects but also overall benefits and risks for CV disease should be taken into consideration.